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slackware:qemu [2006/04/12 09:41]
alien
slackware:qemu [2008/09/01 11:04] (current)
alien Explain user mode networking
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 You should realize that running an operating system directly on the hardware is always faster than running the same operating system inside a virtual machine, because of the processor overhead that the virtualization of all hardware dictates. Even so, the guest operating system inside the QEMU virtual machine feels suprisingly responsive if you have a decent CPU and lots of RAM. You should realize that running an operating system directly on the hardware is always faster than running the same operating system inside a virtual machine, because of the processor overhead that the virtualization of all hardware dictates. Even so, the guest operating system inside the QEMU virtual machine feels suprisingly responsive if you have a decent CPU and lots of RAM.
  
- +==== Obtaining and building QEMU ====
-==== Obtaining QEMU software ====+
  
 Qemu is not part of Slackware, but it is easily built from source, and [[http://www.slackware.com/~alien/slackbuilds/qemu/ | ready-made packages]] are available from my SlackBuild repository. If you want to build yourself you can use my [[http://www.slackware.com/~alien/slackbuilds/qemu/build/qemu.SlackBuild | SlackBuild script]] found at the above URL, or go to the [[http://qemu.org/download.html | QEMU website]] and compile the source code yourself. Qemu is not part of Slackware, but it is easily built from source, and [[http://www.slackware.com/~alien/slackbuilds/qemu/ | ready-made packages]] are available from my SlackBuild repository. If you want to build yourself you can use my [[http://www.slackware.com/~alien/slackbuilds/qemu/build/qemu.SlackBuild | SlackBuild script]] found at the above URL, or go to the [[http://qemu.org/download.html | QEMU website]] and compile the source code yourself.
 +
 +//NOTE// Building qemu and kqemu has changed with qemu 0.8.1.\\
 +Until qemu 0.8.0, if you want to use kqemu you need to
 +  - unpack the qemu source archive
 +  - change into the 'kqemu' subdirectory of the extracted directory structure
 +  - unpack the kqemu archive in this subdirectory
 +  - move up one directory level to the top of the qemu source tree and run the <code>
 +./configure
 +make
 +make install</code> commands to install the software (both qemu and kqemu.\\ With the release of 0.8.1, building kqemu is separated from building qemu. When you want kqemu to accelerate the emulation in qemu, you
 +  - download and unpack qemu sources
 +  - configure and build qemu with kqemu support (this is the default if you run ''./configure'')
 +  - install qemu on your computer using ''make install''
 +  - download, unpack kqemu archive
 +  - configure and build kqemu, and install it on your computer using ''make install''.
 +
  
  
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 </code> My kqemu package also installs a [[http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/hotplug/udev.html | udev]] rule file as ''/etc/udev/rules.d/50-kqemu-rule'' in case you run QEMU on a 2.6 kernel, with these contents: <code> </code> My kqemu package also installs a [[http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/hotplug/udev.html | udev]] rule file as ''/etc/udev/rules.d/50-kqemu-rule'' in case you run QEMU on a 2.6 kernel, with these contents: <code>
 # kqemu # kqemu
-KERNEL="kqemu", NAME="%k", MODE="0666"</code> If you decided to restrict access to ''/dev/kqemu'', then you should modify this file to for instance <code>+KERNEL=="kqemu", NAME="%k", MODE="0666"</code> If you decided to restrict access to ''/dev/kqemu'', then you should modify this file to for instance <code>
 # kqemu # kqemu
-KERNEL="kqemu", NAME="%k", MODE="0660" , GROUP="qemu"</code>.+KERNEL=="kqemu", NAME="%k", MODE="0660" , GROUP="qemu" 
 +</code>.
  
   * To make the kqemu module load on boot, you should add the following line to the file ''/etc/rc.d/rc.modules'': <code>   * To make the kqemu module load on boot, you should add the following line to the file ''/etc/rc.d/rc.modules'': <code>
 /sbin/modprobe kqemu /sbin/modprobe kqemu
-</code>+</code> Use the following line instead for kqemu if you have UDEV: <code> 
 +/sbin/modprobe kqemu major=0 
 +</code> This will automatically create the device node ''/dev/kqemu'' on demand.\\ Note that nowadays Slackware comes with ''/etc/rc.d/rc.modules'' as a symbolic link to the file ''/etc/rc.d/rc.modules-<kernelversion>''. You have to check carefully that you modify the //modules// file for the kernel you are currently running.
  
-This concludes the alterations needed for a performance boost of your Virtual Machines inside QEMU. As I said earlier, running qemu is really simple - it is a single binary with a lot of optional commandline parameters that customize the virtual machine it will setup for use. QEMU will use the kqemu accelerator if it finds the kernel module loaded in memory (and if it's built with support for kqemu). The newer versions of QEMU and kqemu (at the time of writing, it's only available in the CVS repository of QEMU, but it will be released as QEMU 0.8.1) provide an additional layer of acceleration called //kernel-kqemu//. In this acceleration mode, the Guest kernel processes will also be accelerated as opposed to the "regular" functionality of kqemu to only accelerate the Guest's user processes. You do need to supply an explicit parameter to the qemu commandline: <code>+This concludes the alterations needed for a performance boost of your Virtual Machines inside QEMU. As I said earlier, running qemu is really simple - it is a single binary with a lot of optional commandline parameters that customize the virtual machine it will setup for use. QEMU will use the kqemu accelerator if it finds the kernel module loaded in memory (and if it's built with support for kqemu). QEMU provides an additional layer of acceleration called //kernel-kqemu//. In this acceleration mode, the Guest kernel processes will also be accelerated as opposed to the "regular" functionality of kqemu to only accelerate the Guest's user processes. You do need to supply an explicit parameter to the qemu commandline: <code>
 qemu -kernel-kqemu <other parameters> qemu -kernel-kqemu <other parameters>
 </code> If you don't want kqemu functionality at all, for instance because some programs and Guest OS-es will not work reliably or not at all with acceleration enabled, you can explicitly tell qemu on the commandline to do without: <code> </code> If you don't want kqemu functionality at all, for instance because some programs and Guest OS-es will not work reliably or not at all with acceleration enabled, you can explicitly tell qemu on the commandline to do without: <code>
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 When you're done with installing from CD, do not forget to at least remove the ''-boot d'' commandline parameter, so that the virtual computer will start from it's hard drive instead of booting from the CDROM. When you're done with installing from CD, do not forget to at least remove the ''-boot d'' commandline parameter, so that the virtual computer will start from it's hard drive instead of booting from the CDROM.
 +
  
  
 ==== Networking your virtual machine ==== ==== Networking your virtual machine ====
  
-By default, QEMU uses a feature which is called //user-mode network//. QEMU will run an internal DHCP server that can assign an IP address to the virtual computer in case that is configured to use DHCP. The network range and gateway are hard-coded into QEMU but it allows your virtual machine to call out to your host machine and beyond. For user-mode networking, you don't need to configure anything on your host. will probably document user-mode networking sometime laterbut for now I suggest you read [[slackware:vde my article on VDE]] where I show how you can use [[http://vde.sourceforge.net/ | VDE (virtual distributed ethernet)]] in combination with dnsmasq to get a much enhanced network experience.+=== User mode networking === 
 + 
 +By default, QEMU uses a feature which is called //user-mode network//. QEMU will run an internal DHCP server that can assign an IP address to the virtual computer in case that is configured to use DHCP. The network range and gateway are hard-coded into QEMU but it allows your virtual machine to call out to your host machine and beyond. For user-mode networking, you don't need to configure anything on your host. \\ QEMU will enable user mode networking by default if you do not pass it any network parameters at allor if you start it like this: <code> 
 +qemu -net nic -net user <other qemu parameters> 
 +</code> The network characteristics for user mode networking are as follows: 
 +|Gateway/DHCP/TFTP server: |10.0.2.2 |  
 +|DNS server:               |10.0.2.3 |  
 +|Samba server:             |10.0.2.4 |  
 +|Netmask:                  |255.255.255.0 |  
 +|Guest IP:                 |any address above 10.0.2.15 |  
 + 
 +There are limitations to the user mode networking due to the nature of the implementation. 
 + 
 +  * QEMU will act as a firewall between guest OS and the host computer, so that no network communication is possible from any host program to the guest OS. For instance, you will not be able to setup a ssh session to the guest. \\ To get around this dilemma, QEMU has a "''-redir''" optional argument which enables you to redirect certain ports on the host. Traffic destined for these ports will end up at the guest. For example, let's redirect port 22000 on the localhost to port 22 in the guest, in order to setup a ssh session into the guest: <code> 
 +qemu -redir tcp:22000::22 <other qemu options> 
 +</code> If the guest is running a SSH server at port 22, then it is possible to connect a ssh session on the host to the guest's SSH server like this: <code> 
 +ssh -p 22000 localhost 
 +</code> 
 +  * There is actually no proper network connection between the guest and the world outside the Virtual MachineQEMU will intercept TCP and UDP packets from the guest, dissect them and pass their data payload on to destination computers as if QEMU itself were sending the dataIn reverse, QEMU will grab the return traffic and re-assemble TCP and UDP packets for the guest OS. This private implementation of a network stack in QEMU results in TCP and UDP traffic working transparently for the guest OS, but ICMP packets (ping, traceroute for instance) will not be able to pass the boundary. This should not be a concern to you. However lots of people will run a ''ping'' as their first test of the network in QEMU's guest OS and are led to believe that the guest's network is not functional because they do not see a ping response. 
 + 
 +=== Connecting multiple guests to a VLAN === 
 + 
 +QEMU knows the concept of VLAN's. Think of a VLAN as a virtual switch, emulated by QEMU, to which you connect your guest. You typically use a vlan to connect multiple guests into a virtual network. By default, QEMU assigns //vlan=0// to your guest if you do not specify a vlan number. So, the following two commands are basically the same: <code> 
 +qemu -net nic,vlan=0 -net user <other qemu parameters> 
 +qemu <other qemu parameters> 
 +</code> In addition, I advise you to assign your guest OS's network card a fixed MAC address. If you do not assign a MAC address, QEMU will randomly pick a value and many OS-es will not like that (for instance, Slackware's UDEV will create new interfaces eth1, eth2, ... everytime it finds a new MAC address for your interface card at boot). You can assign a MAC address as follows (you can make up any value that is valid, i.e. 6 bytes separated by colons, in hexadecimal representation): <code> 
 +qemu -net nic,vlan=0,macaddr=51:45:4d:55:00:01 
 +</code> 
 +When several guests are connected using the same vlan number, any network packet that is sent by one of the guests, will be distributed over the vlan to all of the other guests. This allows for transparent network communication between the guests.\\ **NOTE** this has nothing to do with the ability of the guests to connect to the world outside QEMU! 
 + 
 +=== Virtual Distributed Ethernet (VDE) ===
  
 +To overcome the limitations of //user mode networking//, I suggest you read [[slackware:vde | my article on VDE]] where I show how you can use [[http://vde.sourceforge.net/ | VDE (virtual distributed ethernet)]] in combination with dnsmasq to get a much enhanced network experience. Using VDE, you will be able to make your QEMU guest fully accessible to programs running on your host, and if you bridge your network connections, you can make your Virtual Machines appear on your LAN as if they were real machines.
  
 ==== Advanced topics ==== ==== Advanced topics ====
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 ln -s lp0 parport0 ln -s lp0 parport0
 </code> </code>
 +
 +
 +=== Printing to the Host's CUPS server ===
 +
 +The Guest OS can print to a CUPS printer that you configured on the Host. No other software on the Host or the Guest is needed. The Guest's printing system must be able to use //IPP//, the "Internet Printing Protocol". This is the CUPS native protocol.
 +
 +If your Guest is Windows 2000/XP, you need to do the following:
 +  - Click on "add printer" from the printer list window;
 +  - Select "networkprinter or a printer connected to another computer";
 +  - Pick "Connect to a printer on the Internet ..." and enter the correct URL;
 +  - Install the driver for your printer (you will need to have the driver setup program ready if it is not supported by Windows by default);\\ \\ The URL for your CUPS printer will look like <code>
 +http://10.111.111.254:631/printers/lp0</code> where the address ''10.111.111.254'' is the IP address for the Host and ''lp0'' is the name of the printer that you defined in CUPS. Naturally, you will need to substitute values that are appropriate for your own computer!\\ If you use the ''rc.vdenetwork'' init script I documented in [[slackware:vde | my QEMU/VDE network page]] then ''10.111.111.254'' will actually be the correct IP address to use.
 +
 +If your Guest is Slackware Linux, then you need to setup the CUPS client in the Guest. I assume that you already installed the CUPS package when you installed Linux in the Guest. This is what you should do:
 +  - Edit the file ''/etc/cups/client.conf'' and look for the line that says "''#ServerName myhost.domain.com''". Change that line into <code>ServerName 10.111.111.254</code> where you supply a correct IP address for your host. If you use the ''rc.vdenetwork'' init script I documented in [[slackware:vde | my QEMU/VDE network page]] then ''10.111.111.254'' will actually be the correct IP address to use;
 +  - Make the CUPS init script executable so that CUPS will start automatically when the Guest boots: <code>chmod +x /etc/rc.d/rc.cups</code>
 +  - Reboot the Guest or (re-) start CUPS: <code>/etc/rc.d/rc.cups restart</code>
 +  - Your Guest should now be able to use your Host CUPS printer.
 +
 +<note tip>
 +In case you configured your Host's CUPS server to make it visible to other CUPS clients on your network (read my [[slackware:cups | "setting up CUPS" page]]), then the above CUPS client configuration won't be necessary. The Host's CUPS printer will automatically appear - ready for use - in your Guest even if CUPS is running in its default configuration.
 +</note>
  
  
 === Sound support in the Guest === === Sound support in the Guest ===
  
-QEMU has pretty good sound support. It emulates several sound hardcards. You can print a list of the emulated cards by running <code>qemu -soundhw ?</code> Support for the Adlib sound card in QEMU is not enabled by default (Soundblaster 16 and Ensoniq ES1370 are available in the VM by default)You can add support for Adlib to the emulator when you build the software, by adding <code>--enable-adlib</code> to the ''configure'' command. If you want information about the tunable audio parameters, run <code>qemu -audio-help</code>.+QEMU has pretty good sound support. It emulates several sound hardcards. You can print a list of the emulated cards by running <code>qemu -soundhw ?</code> Support for the Adlib sound card in QEMU is not enabled by default (Soundblaster 16 and Ensoniq ES1370 are available in the VM by default) You can add support for Adlib to the emulator when you build the software, by adding <code>--enable-adlib</code> to the ''configure'' command. If you want information about the tunable audio parameters, run <code>qemu -audio-help</code>
  
-For sound output, QEMU uses SDL which in turn uses OSS. Slackware uses the ALSA sound driver which has OSS emulation support. The scripts in the final section of this Wiki page show you how to setup your environment so that you can actually hear the sound that QEMU outputs. Since version 0.8.0, QEMU can use ALSA directly for sound output, but you will have to explicitly enable this when building the sofware. Add <code>--enable-alsa</code> to the ''configure'' command. +For sound output, QEMU uses SDL which in turn uses OSS. Slackware uses the ALSA sound driver which has OSS emulation support. Since version 0.8.0, QEMU can use ALSA directly for sound output, but you will have to explicitly enable this when building the sofware. Add <code>--enable-alsa</code> to the ''configure'' command.\\ 
 +The scripts in the final section of this Wiki page show you how to setup your environment so that you can actually hear the sound that QEMU outputs. The requirement for sound to come from your speakers is the environment variable ''QEMU_AUDIO_DRV 
 +'' which must have a value of either "''sdl''" or "''oss''", or in case you compiled-in ALSA support, it may have a value of "''alsa''" as well.
  
  
 === Using an USB device in QEMU === === Using an USB device in QEMU ===
  
-FIXME+USB devices that are connected to the host machine can be accessed directly inside the Virtual Machine. QEMU                            needs an aditional parameter ''-usb'' to actually enable USB support in the VM. The emulated Intel SB82371 UHCI-Controller has a 8-port USB hub. If you want access to one of your physical devices, you will need to find out it's //Vendor-ID// and //Product-ID//. This information is obtained by examining the output of <code>/sbin/lsusb</code> or <code>cat /proc/bus/usb/devices</code>. You can either tell QEMU to make the device available by looking up the //VendorID // and //ProductID// and passing it on the commandline <code> 
 +qemu -usb -usbdevice host:<VendorID>:<ProductID> <other_parameters> 
 +</code> or starting QEMU just with USB support enabled: <code> 
 +qemu -usb <other_parameters> 
 +</code> After booting the guest OS in the VM, switch to the monitor by pressing <key>C-A-2</key> and enter the following command <code> 
 +usb_add host:<VendorID>:<ProductID> 
 +</code> When you return to the graphical screen of the Guest by pressing <key>C-A-1</key> you will see a USB "device attach" event in the messagelog (Linux) or on-screen (Windows).
  
 +  * An example: You have a HP Scanjet 3300C connected to the USB port of your computer. The output of ''lsusb'' is <code>
 +# lsusb 
 +Bus 003 Device 002: ID 03f0:0205 ScanJet 3300C
 +</code> The command that you use to make this scanner accessible in QEMU is <code>
 +qemu -usb -usbdevice host:03f0:0205 <other_parameters></code>
  
-=== Copy/paste text between Host and Guest ===+<note important> 
 +The important thing to consider with using real USB devices, is that the Host must not have any driver loaded for the USB device. If your hotplug loads drivers automatically, you can enter the driver's name into the file ''/etc/hostplug/blacklist'' to make sure that hotplug will leave it alone. In the QEMU dccumentation I noticed that this is supposedly no longer an issue with (recent) 2.6 kernels. YMMV as I have not yet tried this. 
 +</note>
  
-FIXME+=== PXE booting your QEMU virtual machine ===
  
 +In [[:slackware:pxe|another article]] on this Wiki, i talk about the advantages of network booting ([[wp>PXE boot]]) when you are installing Slackware. Booting the Slackware installer from the network can sometimes be the only way of installing Slackware - imagine a PC without floppy and CDROM drives. QEMU on the other hand, has no need for network boot since you can just create an ISO image and pass that as the "//-cdrom//" parameter and that's it.\\
 +Yet there are times when you'd want your QEMU virtual machine were able to use PXE to boot from the network, if only to test your network setup without sacrificing real hardware. There is only one problem, the emulated QEMU network card (Realtek 8029, a NE2000 clone) does not support booting from the network (it does not emulate a boot ROM).
  
-=== Sharing files between Host and Guest ===+There are two ways to overcome this problem. 
 + 
 +  * The first is to use the [[http://rom-o-matic.net/|ROM-o-Matic]]. ROM-o-matic.net dynamically generates Etherboot ROM images. We will let it create a PXE-capable ISO image that has support for our emulated Realtec network card. We can then use this small (~130kB) ISO image with the "//-cdrom//" parameter to QEMU to let it serve as a "replacement" PXE-boot ROM for the emulated network card.\\ The ISO generation works as follows - on the ROM-o-Matic start page, 
 +    * Select //latest production release//  
 +    * Choose NIC/ROM type **ns8390:rtl8029 - [0x10ec,0x8029]** 
 +    * Choose ROM output format **ISO bootable image without legacy floppy emulation (.iso)** 
 +    * To generate and download a ROM image press: <key>Get ROM</key>\\ No further customizations are needed, the default options are exactly right for our purposes. 
 +    * Save the generated ISO file on your local hard disk (for instance as //qemu_pxeboot.iso//)\\ \\ To use this ISO to boot from your PXE server, run qemu as follows: <code> 
 +qemu -cdrom qemu_pxeboot.iso -boot d <other options> 
 +</code> Read the article on [[:slackware:pxe|installing Slackware using PXE]] if you want to know more about how to setup a full-blown PXE server. 
 + 
 +  * The other option you have is available since QEMU 0.9.0 and that is to use the //''-option-rom''// parameter. As of the 0.9.0 release, QEMU can do a PXE boot using one of the PXE-capable boot roms available in ''/usr/share/qemu'': 
 +    * /usr/share/qemu/pxe-ne2k_pci.bin 
 +    * /usr/share/qemu/pxe-pcnet.bin 
 +    * /usr/share/qemu/pxe-rtl8139.bin\\ In order to support booting from the network, the ''-boot'' parameter has been extended with the possible value //''n''// for "network". An example of the command to PXE-boot your QEMU Virtual Machine from the network follows: <code> 
 +qemu -localtime -m 256 -hda slackware.img -boot n -option-rom /usr/share/qemu/pxe-ne2k_pci.bin <other_parameters></code> 
 + 
 + 
 +<note tip> 
 +If you read the [[slackware:vde#dnsmasq|Wiki article on VDE]] in order to improve the networking support for QEMU, and are running dnsmasq using the example ''rc.vdenetwork'' script, you can easily add support for network booting to the script. Look in the script for <code>DNSMASQ_OPTIONS=""</code> and change it into <code> 
 +DNSMASQ_OPTIONS="--dhcp-boot=/slackware-11.0/pxelinux.0,\"10.111.111.254\",10.111.111.254"</code> The two assumptions here (which you are free to change of course) are: 
 +  * QEMU sees your //host// as having the IP Address ''10.111.111.254'' 
 +  * Your //host// has a TFTP server setup so that ''/slackware-11.0/pxelinux.0'' is the location under the tftproot directory where the PXE bootloader ''pxelinux.0'' can be downloaded. 
 +</note> 
 + 
 +<note tip> 
 +If your TFTP server is not installed on the //host// but somewhere on the "real" network, you're in a bit of a problem: the PXE client and the TFTP server are separated by a NAT firewall!\\ 
 +Actually, there is no problem if you are using VDE for the network support. The ''rc.vdenetwork'' script installs a few basic iptables rules that make your //host// act as the NAT (masquerading) router for the QEMU //guests//. The TFTP requests will not be able to pass the NAT (which causes Slackware's //tftp-hpa// server to log errors like '' in.tftpd[8146]: tftpd: read(ack): Connection refused'').\\ 
 +We need a some extra work on the iptables firewall here, to let the TFTP traffic pass along. Add the following commands to the ''rc.vdenetwork'' script, or another place if your firewall is not setup there: <code> 
 +modprobe ipt_state 
 +modprobe ipt_helper 
 +modprobe ip_conntrack_tftp 
 +modprobe ip_nat_tftp 
 +iptables -A INPUT -m helper --helper tftp -j ACCEPT 
 +iptables -A OUTPUT -m helper --helper tftp -j ACCEPT 
 +</code> after which the QEMU VM will find the TFTP server and start downloading the bootcode, and the Operating System. 
 +</note> 
 + 
 + 
 +=== Copy/paste text between Host and Guest ===
  
 FIXME FIXME
  
  
-=== The VNC patch and other user contributions ===+=== Sharing files between Host and Guest ===
  
 FIXME FIXME
  
 +
 +''Code Text''
  
 ==== A QEMU start script ==== ==== A QEMU start script ====
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   * __IRC__: the #qemu channel on Freenode.   * __IRC__: the #qemu channel on Freenode.
- 

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